Now after the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. 2 Suddenly there was a severe earthquake, for an angel of the Lord[a] descending from heaven came and rolled away the stone and sat on it. 3 His[b] appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow. 4 The[c] guards were shaken and became like dead men because they were so afraid of him. 5 But the angel said[d] to the women, “Do not be afraid; I know[e] that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified.[f] 6 He is not here, for he has been raised,[g] just as he said. Come and see the place where he[h] was lying. 7 Then go quickly and tell his disciples, ‘He has been raised from the dead. He[i] is going ahead of you into Galilee. You will see him there.’ Listen, I have told you!” 8 So[j] they left the tomb quickly, with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples. 9 But[k] Jesus met them, saying, “Greetings!” They[l] came to him, held on to his feet and worshiped him. 10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee. They will see me there.”
The Guards’ Report
11 While[m] they were going, some[n] of the guard went into the city and told the chief priests everything that had happened. 12 After[o] they had assembled with the elders and formed a plan, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers, 13 telling them, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came at night and stole his body[p]while we were asleep.’ 14 If[q] this matter is heard before the governor,[r] we will satisfy him[s] and keep you out of trouble.”[t] 15 So they took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story is told among the Jews to this day.[u]
The Great Commission
16 So[v] the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 17 When[w]they saw him, they worshiped him,[x] but some doubted.[y] 18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,[z] “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go[aa] and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,[ab] 20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,[ac] I am with you[ad] always, to the end of the age.”[ae]
- Matthew 28:2 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 1:20.
- Matthew 28:3 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:5 tn Grk “But answering, the angel said.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
- Matthew 28:5 tn Grk “for I know.”
- Matthew 28:5 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
- Matthew 28:6 tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, ēgerthē). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God.
- Matthew 28:6 tc Expansions on the text, especially when the Lord is the subject, are a common scribal activity. In this instance, since the subject is embedded in the verb, three major variants have emerged to make the subject explicit: ὁ κύριος (ho kurios, “the Lord”; A C D L W Γ 0148 ƒ1,13 565 579 700 1241 M lat), τὸ σῶμα τοῦ κυρίου (to sōma tou kuriou, “the body of the Lord”; 1424), and ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (ho Iēsous, “Jesus”; Φ). The reading with no explicit subject, however, is superior on both internal and external grounds, being supported by א B Θ 33 892* co.
- Matthew 28:7 tn Grk “And behold he.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
- Matthew 28:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s instructions to tell the disciples.
- Matthew 28:9 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί(kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate that the return of the women from the tomb was interrupted by this appearance of Jesus. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
- Matthew 28:9 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:11 tn Grk “behold, some of the guard.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
- Matthew 28:12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:13 tn Grk “him.”
- Matthew 28:14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:14 tn Here ἐπί (epi) followed by the genitive = “before,” especially in the language of lawsuits (BDAG 363 s.v. 3).
- Matthew 28:14 tc ‡ αὐτόν (auton, “him”) is found after πείσομεν (peisomen, “we will satisfy”) in the majority of witnesses, though it seems to be motivated by a need for clarification and cannot therefore easily explain the rise of the shorter reading (which is found in א B Θ 33 pc). Nevertheless, English style requires the pronoun. NA28includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
- Matthew 28:14 tn Grk “and make you free from care” = “we will keep you out of trouble.”
- Matthew 28:15 tc ‡ The word ἡμέρας(hēmeras, “day”) is found after σήμερον(sēmeron, “today, this [day]”) in some early and significant witnesses (B D L Θ lat, as well as other versions and fathers), but may be added for emphasis (cf. Acts 20:26; 27:33; Rom 11:8; 2 Cor 3:14). But since the idiom with “day” is unquestionably found only in Paul’s speeches in Acts or his letters, intrinsic evidence is against the addition. The shorter reading (found in א A W 0148vid ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M) is thus preferred. NA28includes the word in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity. Whether authentic or not, the translation is not affected.
- Matthew 28:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions in v. 10.
- Matthew 28:17 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
- Matthew 28:17 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
- Matthew 28:17 tn The Greek text reads here οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν (hoi de edistasan). Some scholars argue that the article is functioning like a personal pronoun, thus “they doubted” (e.g., D. A. Hagner, Matthew [WBC], 2:884). If so, then all the disciples would be in view. The translation of the text takes οἱ as an alternative pronoun which has a partitive notion (i.e., some of the disciples doubted, but not all). The difficulty with the personal pronoun view is that there are no examples of it in Matthew in which the same subject immediately precedes with its own verb (as would be the case in “they worshiped…they doubted”). Such, in fact, would be quite awkward, for the article would be unnecessary since the pronominal referent is already embedded in the verb. The only reason for the article here would be to distinguish the subject in some way; but if the same subject is in view, no distinction is being made.
- Matthew 28:18 tn Grk “coming, Jesus spoke to them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn, “saying”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί(kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Matthew 28:19 tn “Go…baptize…teach” are participles modifying the imperative verb “make disciples.” According to ExSyn 645 the first participle (πορευθέντες, poreuthentes, “Go”) fits the typical structural pattern for the attendant circumstance participle (aorist participle preceding aorist main verb, with the mood of the main verb usually imperative or indicative) and thus picks up the mood (imperative in this case) from the main verb (μαθητεύσατε, mathēteusate, “make disciples”). This means that semantically the action of “going” is commanded, just as “making disciples” is. As for the two participles that follow the main verb (βαπτίζοντες, baptizontes, “baptizing”; and διδάσκοντες, didaskontes, “teaching”), these do not fit the normal pattern for attendant circumstance participles, since they are present participles and follow the aorist main verb. However, some interpreters do see them as carrying additional imperative force in context. Others regard them as means, manner, or even result.
- Matthew 28:19 tc Although some scholars have denied that the trinitarian baptismal formula in the Great Commission was a part of the autographic text of Matthew, there is no ms support for their contention. F. C. Conybeare, “The Eusebian Form of the Text of Mt. 28:19, ” ZNW 2 (1901): 275-88, based his view on a faulty reading of Eusebius’ quotations of this text. The shorter reading has also been accepted, on other grounds, by a few other scholars. For discussion (and refutation of the conjecture that removes this baptismal formula), see B. J. Hubbard, The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commissioning (SBLDS 19), 163-64, 167-75; and Jane Schaberg, The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (SBLDS 61), 27-29.
- Matthew 28:20 tn The Greek word ἰδού(idou) has been translated here as “remember” (BDAG 468 s.v. 1.c).
- Matthew 28:20 sn I am with you. Matthew’s Gospel begins with the prophecy that the Savior’s name would be “Emmanuel, that is, ‘God with us,’” (1:23, in which the author has linked Isa 7:14 and 8:8, 10 together) and it ends with Jesus’ promise to be with his disciples forever. The Gospel of Matthew thus forms an inclusio about Jesus in his relationship to his people that suggests his deity.
- Matthew 28:20 tc Most mss (Ac Γ Δ Θ ƒ13 565 579 700 1241 1424 M it sy) have ἀμήν (amēn, “amen”) at the end of v. 20. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, no good reason exists for the omission of the particle in significant and early witnesses such as א A* B D W ƒ1 33 al lat sa.