Psalm 95 and Colossians 1

As you read the following two chapters, ask yourself the following question: “Am I challenging Jesus’s authority in my life, or am I resting in it?” When we acknowledge that only God is God, and that we are the sheep of His pasture, we sing a new song of praise! A praise that lifts His name above all others!

Psalm 95

Come, let us sing for joy to the Lord.
Let us shout out praises to our Protector who delivers us.[b]
Let us enter his presence[c] with thanksgiving.
Let us shout out to him in celebration.[d]
For the Lord is a great God,
a great king who is superior to[e]all gods.
The depths of the earth are in his hand,[f]
and the mountain peaks belong to him.
The sea is his, for he made it.
His hands formed the dry land.
Come, let us bow down and worship.[g]
Let us kneel before the Lord, our Creator.
For he is our God;
we are the people of his pasture,
the sheep he owns.[h]
Today, if only you would obey him.[i]
He says,[j] “Do not be stubborn like they were at Meribah,[k]
like they were that day at Massah[l] in the wilderness,[m]
where your ancestors challenged my authority,[n]
and tried my patience, even though they had seen my work.
10 For forty years I was continually disgusted[o] with that generation,
and I said, ‘These people desire to go astray;[p]
they do not obey my commands.’[q]
11 So I made a vow in my anger,
‘They will never enter into the resting place I had set aside for them.’”[r]


  1. Psalm 95:1 sn Psalm 95. The psalmist summons Israel to praise God as the creator of the world and the nation’s protector, but he also reminds the people not to rebel against God.
  2. Psalm 95:1 tn Heb “to the rocky summit of our deliverance.”
  3. Psalm 95:2 tn Heb “meet his face.”
  4. Psalm 95:2 tn Heb “with songs of joy.”
  5. Psalm 95:3 tn Heb “above.”
  6. Psalm 95:4 tn The phrase “in his hand” means within the sphere of his authority.
  7. Psalm 95:6 tn Heb “kneel down.”
  8. Psalm 95:7 tn Heb “of his hand.”
  9. Psalm 95:7 tn Heb “if only you would listen to his voice.” The Hebrew particle אִם (ʾim, “if”) and following prefixed verbal form here express a wish (cf. Ps 81:8). Note that the apodosis (the “then” clause of the conditional sentence) is suppressed.
  10. Psalm 95:8 tn The words “he says” are supplied in the translation to clarify that the following words are spoken by the Lord (see vv. 9-11).
  11. Psalm 95:8 sn The name Meribahmeans “strife.” Two separate but similar incidents at Meribah are recorded in the Pentateuch (Exod 17:1-7; Num 20:1-13, see also Pss 81:7; 106:32). In both cases the Israelites complained about lack of water and the Lord miraculously provided for them.
  12. Psalm 95:8 sn The name Massahmeans “testing.” This was another name (along with Meribah) given to the place where Israel complained following the Red Sea Crossing (see Exod 17:1-7, as well as Deut 6:16; 9:22; 33:8).
  13. Psalm 95:8 tn Heb “do not harden your heart[s] as [at] Meribah, as [in] the day of Massah in the wilderness.”
  14. Psalm 95:9 tn Heb “where your fathers tested me.”
  15. Psalm 95:10 tn The prefixed verbal form is either a preterite or an imperfect. If the latter, it emphasizes the ongoing nature of the condition in the past. The translation reflects this interpretation of the verbal form.
  16. Psalm 95:10 tn Heb “a people, wanderers of heart [are] they.”
  17. Psalm 95:10 tn Heb “and they do not know my ways.” In this context the Lord’s “ways” are his commands, viewed as a pathway from which his people, likened to wayward sheep (see v. 7), wander.
  18. Psalm 95:11 tn Heb “my resting place.” The promised land of Canaan is here viewed metaphorically as a place of rest for God’s people, who are compared to sheep (see v. 7).

Colossians 1

Colossians 1New English Translation


1 From Paul,[a] an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the saints, the faithful[b]brothers and sisters[c] in Christ, at Colossae. Grace and peace to you[d] from God our Father![e]

Paul’s Thanksgiving and Prayer for the Church

We always[f] give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, when we pray for you, since[g] we heard about your faith in Christ Jesus and the love that you have for all the saints. Your faith and love have arisen[h] from the hope laid up[i] for you in heaven, which you have heard about in the message of truth, the gospel[j] that has come to you. Just as in the entire world this gospel[k] is bearing fruit and growing, so it has also been bearing fruit and growing[l] among you from the first day you heard it and understood the grace of God in truth. You learned the gospel[m]from Epaphras, our dear fellow slave[n]—a[o] faithful minister of Christ on our[p]behalf— who also told us of your love in the Spirit.

Paul’s Prayer for the Growth of the Church

For this reason we also, from the day we heard about you,[q] have not ceased praying for you and asking God[r] to fill[s]you with the knowledge of his will in all spiritual wisdom and understanding, 10 so that you may live[t] worthily of the Lord and please him in all respects[u]—bearing fruit in every good deed, growing in the knowledge of God, 11 being strengthened with all power according to his glorious might for the display of[v] all patience and steadfastness, joyfully 12 giving thanks to the Father who has qualified you to share[w] in the saints’[x]inheritance in the light. 13 He delivered us from the power of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of the Son he loves,[y] 14 in whom we have redemption,[z] the forgiveness of sins.

The Supremacy of Christ

15 [aa] He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn[ab]over all creation,[ac]
16 for all things in heaven and on earth were created in him—all things, whether visible or invisible, whether thrones or dominions,[ad] whether principalities or powers—all things were created through him and for him.
17 He himself is before all things and all things are held together[ae] in him.
18 He is the head of the body, the church, as well as the beginning, the firstborn[af] from the dead, so that he himself may become first in all things.[ag]
19 For God[ah] was pleased to have all his[ai] fullness dwell[aj] in the Son[ak]
20 and through him to reconcile all things to himself by making peace through the blood of his cross—through him,[al] whether things on earth or things in heaven.

Paul’s Goal in Ministry

21 And you were at one time strangers and enemies in your[am] minds[an] as expressed through[ao] your evil deeds, 22 but now he has reconciled you[ap] by his physical body through death to present you holy, without blemish, and blameless before him— 23 if indeed you remain in the faith, established and firm,[aq] without shifting[ar] from the hope of the gospel that you heard. This gospel has also been preached in all creation under heaven, and I, Paul, have become its servant.

24 Now I rejoice in my sufferings for you, and I fill up in my physical body—for the sake of his body, the church—what is lacking in the sufferings of Christ. 25 I became a servant of the church according to the stewardship[as] from God—given to me for you—in order to complete[at] the word of God, 26 that is, the mystery that has been kept hidden from ages and generations, but has now been revealed to his saints. 27 God wanted to make known to them the glorious[au] riches of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. 28 We proclaim him by instructing[av] and teaching[aw] all people[ax] with all wisdom so that we may present every person mature[ay] in Christ. 29 Toward this goal[az] I also labor, struggling according to his power that powerfully[ba] works in me.


  1. Colossians 1:1 tn Grk “Paul.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.
  2. Colossians 1:2 tn Grk “and faithful.” The construction in Greek (as well as Paul’s style) suggests that the saints are identical to the faithful; hence, the καί (kai) is best left untranslated (cf. Eph 1:1). See ExSyn 281-82.
  3. Colossians 1:2 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelphoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).
  4. Colossians 1:2 tn Or “Grace to you and peace.”
  5. Colossians 1:2 tc Most witnesses, including some significant ones (א A C F G I [P] 075 2464 M it bo Hier), read “and the Lord Jesus Christ” at the end of this verse, no doubt to conform the wording to the typical Pauline salutation. However, excellent and early witnesses (B D K L Ψ 33 81 1175 1505 1739 1881 al sa Ambst) lack this phrase. Since the omission is inexplicable as arising from the longer reading (otherwise, these mss would surely have deleted the phrase in the rest of the corpus Paulinum), it is surely authentic.
  6. Colossians 1:3 tn The adverb πάντοτε(pantote) is understood to modify the indicative εὐχαριστοῦμεν(eucharistoumen) because it precedes περὶ ὑμῶν (peri humōn) which probably modifies the indicative and not the participle προσευχόμενοι(proseuchomenoi). But see 1:9 where the same expression occurs and περὶ ὑμῶν modifies the participle “praying” (προσευχόμενοι).
  7. Colossians 1:4 tn The adverbial participle ἀκούσαντες (akousantes) is understood to be temporal and translated with “since.” A causal idea may also be in the apostle’s mind, but the context emphasizes temporal ideas, e.g., “from the day” (v. 6).
  8. Colossians 1:5 tn Col 1:3-8 form one long sentence in the Greek text and have been divided at the end of v. 4and v. 6 and within v. 6 for clarity, in keeping with the tendency in contemporary English toward shorter sentences. Thus the phrase “Your faith and love have arisen from the hope” is literally “because of the hope.” The perfect tense “have arisen” was chosen in the English to reflect the fact that the recipients of the letter had acquired this hope at conversion in the past, but that it still remains and motivates them to trust in Christ and to love one another.
  9. Colossians 1:5 tn BDAG 113 s.v. ἀπόκειμαι 2 renders ἀποκειμένην(apokeimenēn) with the expression “reserved” in this verse.
  10. Colossians 1:5 tn The term “the gospel” (τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, tou euangeliou) is in apposition to “the word of truth” (τῷ λόγῳ τῆς ἀληθείας, tō logō tēs alētheias) as indicated in the translation.
  11. Colossians 1:6 tn Grk “just as in the entire world it is bearing fruit.” The antecedent (“the gospel”) of the implied subject (“it”) of ἐστιν (estin) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  12. Colossians 1:6 tn Though the participles are periphrastic with the present tense verb ἐστίν (estin), the presence of the temporal indicator “from the day” in the next clause indicates that this is a present tense that reaches into the past and should be translated as “has been bearing fruit and growing.” For a discussion of this use of the present tense, see ExSyn 519-20.
  13. Colossians 1:7 tn Or “learned it.” The Greek text simply has “you learned” without the reference to “the gospel,” but “the gospel” is supplied to clarify the sense of the clause. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  14. Colossians 1:7 tn The Greek word translated “fellow slave” is σύνδουλος(sundoulos); the σύν- prefix here denotes association. Though δοῦλος is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force. Also, many slaves in the Roman world became slaves through Rome’s subjugation of conquered nations, kidnapping, or by being born into slave households.
  15. Colossians 1:7 tn The Greek text has “who (ὅς, hos) is a faithful minister.” The above translation conveys the antecedent of the relative pronoun quite well and avoids the redundancy with the following substantival participle of v. 8, namely, “who told” (ὁ δηλώσας, ho dēlōsas).
  16. Colossians 1:7 tc ‡ Judging by the superior witnesses for the first person pronoun ἡμῶν (hēmōn, “us”; P46 א* A B D* F G 326* 1505) vs. the second person pronoun ὑμῶν (humōn, “you”; found in א2 C D1 Ψ 075 33 1175 17391881 2464 M lat sy co), ἡμῶν should be regarded as the initial reading. Although it is possible that ἡμῶν was an early alteration of ὑμῶν (either unintentionally, as dittography, since it comes seventeen letters after the previous ἡμῶν; or intentionally, to conform to the surrounding first person pronouns), this supposition is difficult to maintain in light of the varied and valuable witnesses for this reading. Further, the second person is both embedded in the verb ἐμάθετε(emathete) and is explicit in v. 8(ὑμῶν). Hence, the motivation to change to the first person pronoun is counterbalanced by such evidence. The second person pronoun may have been introduced unintentionally via homoioarcton with the ὑπέρ (huper) that immediately precedes it. As well, the second person reading is somewhat harder for it seems to address Epaphras’ role only in relation to Paul and his colleagues, rather than in relation to the Colossians. Nevertheless, the decision must be based ultimately on external evidence (since the internal evidence can be variously interpreted), and this strongly supports ἡμῶν.
  17. Colossians 1:9 tn Or “heard about it”; Grk “heard.” There is no direct object stated in the Greek (direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context). A direct object is expected by an English reader, however, so most translations supply one. Here, however, it is not entirely clear what the author “heard”: a number of translations supply “it” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV; NAB “this”), but this could refer back either to (1) “your love in the Spirit” at the end of v. 8, or (2) “your faith in Christ Jesus and the love that you have for all the saints” (v. 4). In light of this uncertainty, other translations supply “about you” (TEV, NIV, CEV, NLT). This is preferred by the present translation since, while it does not resolve the ambiguity entirely, it does make it less easy for the English reader to limit the reference only to “your love in the Spirit” at the end of v. 8.
  18. Colossians 1:9 tn The term “God” does not appear in the Greek text, but the following reference to “the knowledge of his will” makes it clear that “God” is in view as the object of the “praying and asking,” and should therefore be included in the English translation for clarity.
  19. Colossians 1:9 tn The ἵνα (hina) clause has been translated as substantival, indicating the content of the prayer and asking. The idea of purpose may also be present in this clause.
  20. Colossians 1:10 tn The infinitive περιπατῆσαι (peripatēsai, “to walk, to live, to live one’s life”) is best taken as an infinitive of purpose related to “praying” (προσευχόμενοι, proseuchomenoi) and “asking” (αἰτούμενοι, aitoumenoi) in v. 9 and is thus translated as “that you may live.”
  21. Colossians 1:10 tn BDAG 129 s.v. ἀρεσκεία states that ἀρεσκείαν(areskeian) refers to a “desire to please εἰς πᾶσαν ἀ. to please (the Lord) in all respects Col 1:10.”
  22. Colossians 1:11 tn The expression “for the display of” is an attempt to convey in English the force of the Greek preposition εἰς (eis) in this context.
  23. Colossians 1:12 tn BDAG 473 s.v. ἱκανόω states, “τινὰ εἴς τι someone for somethCol 1:12.” The point of the text is that God has qualified the saints for a “share” or “portion” in the inheritance of the saints.
  24. Colossians 1:12 tn Grk “the inheritance of the saints.” The genitive noun τῶν ἁγίων (tōn hagiōn) is a possessive genitive: “the saints’ inheritance.”
  25. Colossians 1:13 tn Here αὐτοῦ (autou) has been translated as a subjective genitive (“he loves”).
  26. Colossians 1:14 tc διὰ τοῦ αἵματοςαὐτοῦ (dia tou haimatos autou, “through his blood”) is read at this juncture by several minuscule mss(614 630 1505 2464) as well as a few, mostly secondary, versional and patristic witnesses. But the reading was prompted by the parallel in Eph 1:7where the wording is solid. If these words had been in the original of Colossians, why would scribes omit them here but not in Eph 1:7? Further, the testimony on behalf of the shorter reading is quite overwhelming: א A B C D F G Ψ 075 0150 6 33 1739 1881 Mlatt co as well as several other versions and fathers. The conviction that “through his blood” is not authentic in Col 1:14 is as strong as the conviction that these words are authentic in Eph 1:7.
  27. Colossians 1:15 sn This passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum(i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.
  28. Colossians 1:15 tn The Greek term πρωτότοκος (prōtotokos) could refer either to first in order of time, such as a first born child, or it could refer to one who is preeminent in rank. M. J. Harris, Colossians and Philemon (EGGNT), 43, expresses the meaning of the word well: “The ‘firstborn’ was either the eldest child in a family or a person of preeminent rank. The use of this term to describe the Davidic king in Ps 88:28 LXX (=Ps 89:27 EVV), ‘I will also appoint him my firstborn (πρωτότοκον), the most exalted of the kings of the earth,’ indicates that it can denote supremacy in rank as well as priority in time. But whether the πρωτό- element in the word denotes time, rank, or both, the significance of the -τοκος element as indicating birth or origin (from τίκτω, give birth to) has been virtually lost except in ref. to lit. birth.” In Col 1:15 the emphasis is on the priority of Jesus’ rank as over and above creation (cf. 1:16 and the “for” clause referring to Jesus as Creator).
  29. Colossians 1:15 tn The genitive construction πάσης κτίσεως (pasēs ktiseōs) is a genitive of subordination and is therefore translated as “over all creation.” See ExSyn 103-4.
  30. Colossians 1:16 tn BDAG 579 s.v. κυριότης 3 suggests “bearers of the ruling powers, dominions” here.
  31. Colossians 1:17 tn BDAG 973 s.v. συνίστημι B.3 suggests “continue, endure, exist, hold together” here.
  32. Colossians 1:18 tn See the note on the term “firstborn” in 1:15. Here the reference to Jesus as the “firstborn from the dead” seems to be arguing for a chronological priority, i.e., Jesus was the first to rise from the dead.
  33. Colossians 1:18 tn Grk “in order that he may become in all things, himself, first.”
  34. Colossians 1:19 tn The noun “God” does not appear in the Greek text, but the similar phrase “all the fullness of deity” in 2:9 lends credence to God as the subject of εὐδόκησεν(eudokēsen).
  35. Colossians 1:19 tn The Greek article τό(to), insofar as it relates to God, may be translated as a possessive pronoun, i.e., “his.” BDAG 404 s.v. εὐδοκέω 1 translates the phrase as “all the fullness willed to dwell in him” thus leaving the referent as impersonal. Insofar as Paul is alluding to the so-called emanations from God this is acceptable. But the fact that “the fullness” dwells in a person (i.e., “in him”) seems to argue for the translation “his fullness” where “his” refers to God.
  36. Colossians 1:19 tn The aorist verb κατοικῆσαι (katoikēsai) could be taken as an ingressive, in which case it refers to the incarnation and may be translated as “begin to dwell, to take up residence.” It is perhaps better, though, to take it as a constative aorist and simply a reference to the fact that the fullness of God dwells in Jesus Christ. This is a permanent dwelling, though, not a temporary one, as the present tense in 2:9 makes clear.
  37. Colossians 1:19 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the Son; see v. 13) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  38. Colossians 1:20 tc The presence or absence of the second occurrence of the phrase δι᾿ αὐτοῦ (di’ autou, “through him”) is a difficult textual problem to solve. External evidence is fairly evenly divided. Many ancient and excellent witnesses lack the phrase (B D* F G I 0278 81 1175 1739 1881 2464al latt sa), but equally significant witnesses have it (P46 א A C D1 Ψ048vid 33 M al sy bo). Both readings have strong Alexandrian support, which makes the problem difficult to decide on external evidence alone. The phrase, however, has stronger evidence geographically. Internal evidence points to the inclusion of the phrase as autographic. The word immediately preceding the phrase is the masculine pronoun αὐτοῦ (autou); thus the possibility of omission through homoioteleuton in various witnesses is likely. Scribes might have deleted the phrase because of perceived redundancy or awkwardness in the sense: The shorter reading is smoother and more elegant, so scribes would be prone to correct the text in that direction. As far as style is concerned, repetition of key words and phrases for emphasis is not foreign to the corpus Paulinum (see, e.g., Rom 8:23Eph 1:132 Cor 12:7). In sum, it is easier to account for the shorter reading arising from the longer reading than vice versa, so the longer reading is more likely original, though a decision is not easy. The NA28 prints the prepositional phrase in brackets indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.
  39. Colossians 1:21 tn The article τῇ () has been translated as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  40. Colossians 1:21 tn Although διανοία(dianoia) is singular in Greek, the previous plural noun ἐχθρούς(echthrous) indicates that all those from Colossae are in view here.
  41. Colossians 1:21 tn The dative ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις τοῖς πονηροῖς (en tois ergois tois ponērois) is taken as means, indicating the avenue through which hostility in the mind is revealed and made known.
  42. Colossians 1:22 tc Some of the better representatives of the Alexandrian and Western groups have a passive verb here instead of the active ἀποκατήλλαξεν (apokatēllaxen, “he has reconciled”): ἀποκατηλλάγητε(apokatēllagēte) in P46 B, ἀποκατήλλακται [sic] (apokatēllaktai) in 33, and ἀποκαταλλαγέντες(apokatallagentes) in D* F G. Yet the active verb is strongly supported by אA C D2 Ψ 048 075 0278 1175 1505 1739 1881 2464 M al lat sy. Internally, the passive creates an anacoluthon in that it looks back to the accusativeὑμᾶς (humas, “you”) of v. 21 and leaves the following παραστῆσαι(parastēsai) dangling (“you were reconciled…to present you”). The passive reading is certainly the harder reading. As such, it may well explain the rise of the others. At the same time, it is possible that the passive was produced by scribes who wanted some symmetry between the ποτε(pote, “at one time”) of v. 21 and the νυνὶ δέ (nuni de, “but now”) of v. 22: Since a passive periphrastic participle is used in v. 21, there may have been a temptation to produce a corresponding passive form in v. 22, so that the ὑμᾶς of v. 21 functioned as subject by way of constructio ad sensum. Since παραστῆσαι occurs ten words later, it may not have been considered in this scribal modification. Further, the Western reading (ἀποκαταλλαγέντες) hardly seems to have arisen from ἀποκατηλλάγητε(contra TCGNT 555). As difficult as this decision is, the preferred reading is the active form because it is superior externally and seems to explain the rise of all forms of the passive The direct object is omitted in the Greek text, but it is clear from context that “you” (ὑμᾶς, humas) is implied.
  43. Colossians 1:23 tn BDAG 276 s.v. ἑδραῖος suggests “firm, steadfast.”
  44. Colossians 1:23 tn BDAG 639 s.v. μετακινέω suggests “without shifting from the hope” here.
  45. Colossians 1:25 tn BDAG 697 s.v. οἰκονομία 1.b renders the term here as “divine office.”
  46. Colossians 1:25 tn See BDAG 828 s.v. πληρόω 3. The idea here seems to be that the apostle wants to “complete the word of God” in that he wants to preach it to every person in the known world (cf. Rom 15:19). See P. T. O’Brien, Colossians, Philemon (WBC), 82.
  47. Colossians 1:27 tn The genitive noun τῆς δόξης (tēs doxēs) is an attributive genitive and has therefore been translated as “glorious riches.”
  48. Colossians 1:28 tn Or “admonishing,” or “warning.” BDAG 679 s.v. νουθετέωstates, “to counsel about avoidance or cessation of an improper course of conduct, admonish, warn, instruct.” After the participle νουθετοῦντες(nouthetountes, “instructing”) the words πάντα ἄνθρωπον (panta anthrōpon, “all men”) occur in the Greek text, but since the same phrase appears again after διδάσκοντες(didaskontes) it was omitted in translation to avoid redundancy in English.
  49. Colossians 1:28 tn The two participles “instructing” (νουθετοῦντες, nouthetountes) and “teaching” (διδάσκοντες, didaskontes) are translated as participles of means (“by”) related to the finite verb “we proclaim” (καταγγέλλομεν, katangellomen).
  50. Colossians 1:28 tn Here ἄνθρωπον(anthrōpon) is twice translated as a generic (“people” and “person”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
  51. Colossians 1:28 tn Since Paul’s focus is on the present experience of the Colossians, “mature” is a better translation of τέλειον (teleion) than “perfect,” since the latter implies a future, eschatological focus.
  52. Colossians 1:29 tn The Greek phrase εἴς ὅ (eis ho, “toward which”) implies “movement toward a goal” and has been rendered by the English phrase “Toward this goal.”
  53. Colossians 1:29 tn The prepositional phrase ἐν δυνάμει (en dunamei) seems to be functioning adverbially, related to the participle, and has therefore been translated “powerfully.”

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